What are kidney stones?

Kidney stones, or renal calculi, are solid masses made of crystals. Kidney stones usually originate in your kidneys. However, they can develop anywhere along your urinary tract, which consists of these parts:
  • kidneys
  • ureters
  • bladder
  • urethra

Kidney stones are one of the most painful medical conditions. The causes of kidney stones vary according to the type of stone.

The condition of having kidney stones is termed nephrolithiasis. Having stones at any location in the urinary tract is referred to as urolithiasis, and the term ureterolithiasis is used to refer to stones located in the ureters

Calcium stones are the most common. They’re often made of calcium oxalate (though they can consist of calcium phosphate or maleate). Eating fewer oxalate-rich foods can reduce your risk of developing this type of stone.

Cystine stones are rare. They occur in both men and women who have the genetic disorder cystinuria. With this type of stone, cystine — an acid that occurs naturally in the body — leaks from the kidneys into the urine.

This type of stone is found mostly in women with urinary tract infections (UTIs). These stones can be large and cause urinary obstruction. They result from a kidney infection. Treating an underlying infection can prevent the development of struvite stones.

This type of kidney stone is more common in men than in women. They can occur in people with gout or those going through chemotherapy. This type of stone develops when urine is too acidic. A diet rich in purines can increase urine’s acidic level.

Who is at risk for kidney stones?

Anyone may develop a kidney stone, but people with certain diseases and conditions (see below) or those who are taking certain medications are more susceptible to their development. Urinary tract stones are more common in men than in women. Most urinary stones develop in people 20 to 49 years of age, and those who are prone to multiple attacks of kidney stones usually develop their first stones during the second or third decade of life. People who have already had more than one kidney stone are prone to developing further stones.


A kidney stone may not cause symptoms until it moves around within your kidney or passes into your ureter — the tube connecting the kidney and bladder. At that point, you may experience these signs and symptoms:

  • Severe pain in the side and back, below the ribs
  • Pain that radiates to the lower abdomen and groin
  • Pain that comes in waves and fluctuates in intensity
  • Pain on urination
  • Pink, red or brown urine
  • Cloudy or foul-smelling urine
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Persistent need to urinate
  • Urinating more often than usual
  • Fever and chills if an infection is present
  • Urinating small amounts

Pain caused by a kidney stone may change — for instance, shifting to a different location or increasing in intensity — as the stone moves through your urinary tract.

Consult with Experts

    What are the complications of kidney stones?

    Complications of kidney stones include:

    • recurring kidney stones, since people who have had kidney stones at least once, have 80 % chance of getting them again.
    • obstruction or blockage in the urinary tract
    • kidney failure
    • sepsis, which can occur after the treatment of a large kidney stone
    • an injury to the ureter while undergoing a surgery for the removal of the kidney stone
    • urinary tract infection
    • severe pain
    • heavy bleeding during kidney stones operation

    There are a number of less common kidney stones caused by medications and other components.

    The symptoms of kidney stones do not vary by their composition. Infections are more common with struvite stones. Once the composition of kidney or ureteral stones is determined, prevention measures can be advised.


    Following an improper diet and sedentary lifestyle, working for long periods in direct sunlight, doing excessive physical work, excessive consumption of alcoholic beverages, tea, and coffee, indulgence in heavy, oily, sweet, and indigestible foods and reduced intake of fresh vegetables, salt, and alkaline-producing foods, drinking too little water, diet high in meat, fish, and poultry and suppressing the urge to pass stools and urine can cause urinary stones. In order to provide precise and effective Kidney stone treatment, Jiva doctor evaluates these causes along with considering inputs provided by Artificial-intelligence powered Bhagwati Ayurveda Protocol Engine.

    Risk factors

    Kidney stones are more common among males than females. Most people who experience kidney stones do so between the ages of 30 and 50 years. A family history of kidney stones also increases one’s chances of developing them.

    Similarly, a previous kidney stone occurrence increases the risk that a person will develop subsequent stones in the future if preventative action is not taken.

    Digestive diseases and surgery: Gastric bypass surgery, inflammatory bowel disease or chronic diarrhea can cause changes in the digestive process that affect your absorption of calcium and water, increasing the levels of stone-forming substances in your urine.

    Dehydration: Not drinking enough water each day can increase your risk of kidney stones. People who live in warm climates and those who sweat a lot may be at higher risk than others.

    Kidney Stones Treatment with Ayurveda

    The popularity of ayurveda for treatment of kidney stones is increasing nowadays as more and more people prefer natural treatment to avoid the side effects associated with prescription drugs and medicines. Some of the ayurvedic remedies that are useful for the treatment kidney stones are listed below.

    Gokshura Kada: 15 ml of this liquid, mixed with equal amount of water, taken three times a day is helpful for urination and in relieving the burning urination sensations which are common complaints of people with kidney stones. Another ayurvedic medicine, chander prabha vati is useful for the treatment of the burning sensation while urination.

    Ayurvedic medications such as ber patthar bhasma or patherina (as tablets) can cure kidney stones. Other ayurvedic medicines useful for treatment of kidney stones are cystone tablets (1 to 2 tablets twice daily for 6 to 8 weeks) and calcury tablets (1 to 2 tablets twice or thrice daily for 6 to 8 weeks).

    Diet & Lifestyle Advice

    • Avoid tea, coffee, alcohol, cold drinks, pickles, fish, poultry, meat, spinach, and chocolate.
    • Avoid sour, heavy, and dry food.
    • Increase intake of liquids like water, juice, soup, lime water, etc.
    • Be sure to drink enough water each day. Usually, 1 to 2 liters of water per day is adequate.
    • Drink more if you are perspiring heavily, working outdoors, the weather is hot, etc.
    • Increase the use of barley, horse gram (a type of bean), ginger, and brown rice or parboiled rice.
    • Avoid suppressing urges to urinate and defecate.